Neue Publikationen in 2019
Im Jahr 2019 sind einige neue Publikationen unserer Abteilung erschienen:
Vorstellung einer neuen Konformitäts-Skala
Brügger, A., Messner, C., Dorn, M., & Kaiser, F. G. (2019). Conformity within the Campbell Paradigm: Proposing a new measurement instrument. Social Psychology, 50, 133-144.
Conformity – people’s propensity to comply with the norms and expectations of others – is an important driver of behavior. In this research, we develop a measure of people’s level of conformity which is grounded in an innovative paradigm from attitude research. By relying on relatively easy-to-answer questions about past activities, the new scale addresses some of the conceptual and methodical shortcomings of existing conformity measures. Using a sample of 1,398 people, we calibrated individuals’ claims about how they have conformed with norms, conventions, and the expectations of others in the past. Even though some conformity items seem somewhat gender sensitive, all 33 of them nevertheless form a fairly reliable Rasch scale (rel = .67). Convergent and discriminant validity were corroborated with substantial overlaps with traditional conformity, social desirability, and conscientiousness measures, and with a moderate negative correspondence with people’s desire for uniqueness. Incremental and explanatory validity was provided in a quasi-experiment (n = 152) on evaluations of commercials.
Keywords: social behavior, nonconformity (personality), Rasch model, attitude measurement, Campbell paradigm
Neuinterpretation des Tripartite-Modells im Campbell-Paradigma
Kaiser, F. G. & Wilson, M. (2019). The Campbell Paradigm as a behavior-predictive reinterpretation of the classical tripartite model of attitudes. European Psychologist, 24, 359-374.
In this article, we introduce the “Campbell Paradigm” as a novel variant of Rosenberg and Hovland’s (1960) tripartite model of attitudes. The Campbell Paradigm is based on a highly restricted measurement model that speaks of a compensatory relation between a person’s latent attitude and the costs that come with any specific behavior. It overcomes the overarching weakness of the original tripartite model (i.e., its relative irrelevance for actual behavior) and offers a parsimonious explanation for behavior. Even though this seems attractive, we also discuss why the paradigm has not gained momentum in the 50 years since it was originally proposed by Donald T. Campbell. To demonstrate the paradigm’s suitability even when implemented with an unrefined instrument in a domain where it has not been used previously, we apply the paradigm to a classic data example from attitude research from the 1984 US presidential election to account for the electorate’s voting intentions and actual voting behaviors.
Keywords: attitudes, attitude-behavior consistency, attitude measurement, tripartite model, Campbell Paradigm
Entwicklung von Umwelteinstellung und –verhalten bei Kindern
Otto, S., Evans, G. W., Moon, M. J., & Kaiser F. G. (2019). The development of children’s environmental attitude and behavior. Global Environmental Change 58, 101947.
Environmental attitude and behavior are at the roots of a sustainable future, yet little is known about their developmental origins in early childhood. This longitudinal study is the first to examine how children’s environmental attitude and behavior develop throughout childhood (ages 7 to 18, N = 118). Environmental attitude and behavior form around the age of 7, increase until the age of 10, level off until the age of 14, and then decline again. Environmental behavior develops from childhood to early adolescence and starts consolidating from age 10 onwards, whereas environmental attitude remains in flux at least through early adulthood.
Keywords: environmental behavior, conservation (ecological behavior), environmental attitudes, child development trends